Interesting facts

Genes and obesity

The science of genes

So far, eight genes whose defects have an impact on body weight and diet efficiency have been identified.

These eight genes can be analysed with the genetic analysis Weight Sensor developed by Novogenia as part of the DNAnutriControl program. The method used examines specific regions of the genes (the so-called SNPs) for defects that determine the respective trends for overweight and weight loss.

Summary of scientific studies

The scientific basis for this genetic analysis is unusually strong. The relevant genes were firstly closely examined in numerous studies (more than 7,500 studies of the gene PPARG, 167 studies on gene FABP2, 6,897 trials for gene ADRB2 and 493 studies on FTO), wherein the weight analysis is based on the most important 53 studies on the topic dieting and nutrition.

Eight polymorphisms that have different effects on the body are analyzed in the context of this analysis. Since this is a very comprehensive analysis of the product, this description focuses only on the most important items. These are:

  • Statement 1: People respond different to the fat content in the diet due to genetic polymorphisms. An adaptation of the fat content makes sense.
  • Statement 2: People react differently to the carbohydrate content in food. An adaptation of the carbohydrate content makes sense.
  • Statement 3: Genes influence a particular weight loss program with up to 2.5 times better or worse success.
  • Statement 4: Genetic polymorphisms affect how the body responds to sport for losing weight.
  • Statement 5: Genes influence the success of a calorie reduction for losing weight.

The program detects these genetic tendencies through a gene analysis, the calorie distribution is adapted accordingly, and the program focuses on the strategy that achieves better results, according to the genetic analysis. More sports or greater calories reduction?

The aim of this section is to provide evidence for each of these statements and to emphasize the scientific basis of the program.

Statement 1

People respond different to the fat content in the diet due to genetic polymorphisms. An adaptation of the fat content makes sense.

A very interesting example is the study conducted by the research group (Robitaille et al, Clin Genet. 63: 109-116, 2003), which determined that from the 720 subjects only those with a less favorable variant of the gene PPARG (Pro13Ala) gained weight while having a particularly high fat diet. A genetic effect confirmed by the independent research group (Memisoglu et al, Human Molecular Genetics. 13: 2923-2929, 2001) in a separate study. The body's response to a high-fat or low-fat diet can be predicted through the knowledge of this genetic defect.

Publications

  • http://www.jbc.org/content/276/43/39679.long J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26;276(43):39679-84. Epub 2001 Aug 3. The polymorphism at codon 54 of the FABP2 gene increases fat absorption in human intestinal explants. Levy E, Ménard D, Delvin E, Stan S, Mitchell G, Lambert M, Ziv E, Feoli-Fonseca JC, Seidman E.
  • http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/90/6/1483.long Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec;90(6):1483-8. Epub 2009 Oct 14. The FTO gene rs9939609 obesity-risk allele and loss of control over eating. Tanofsky-Kraff M, Han JC, Anandalingam K, Shomaker LB, Columbo KM, Wolkoff LE, Kozlosky M, Elliott C, Ranzenhofer LM, Roza CA, Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA.
  • http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/90/5/1418.long Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1418-25. Epub 2009 Sep 2. Fat and carbohydrate intake modify the association between genetic variation in the FTO genotype and obesity. Sonestedt E, Roos C, Gullberg B, Ericson U, Wirfält E, Orho-Melander M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19901143 Arch Intern Med. 2009 Nov 9;169(20):1897-906. APOA2, dietary fat, and body mass index: replication of a gene-diet interaction in 3 independent populations. Corella D, Peloso G, Arnett DK, Demissie S, Cupples LA, Tucker K, Lai CQ, Parnell LD, Coltell O, Lee YC, Ordovas JM.
  • http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/18/10/1606.long Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998 Oct;18(10):1606-10. Postprandial lipemic response is modified by the polymorphism at codon 54 of the fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene. Agren JJ, Valve R, Vidgren H, Laakso M, Uusitupa M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=17378725 Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007;45(3):316-20. Polymorphisms in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and cholesterol responsiveness to dietary change. Hubacek JA, Bohuslavova R, Skodova Z, Pitha J, Bobkova D, Poledne R.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=13630956 Clin Genet. 2003 Feb;63(2):109-16. The PPAR-gamma P13A polymorphism modulates the relationship between dietary fat intake and components of the metabolic syndrome: results from the Québec Family Study. Robitaille J, Després JP, Pérusse L, Vohl MC.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21179003 Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Aug;35(8):1041-9. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2010.263. Epub 2010 Dec 21. Association between fat intake, physical activity and mortality depending on genetic variation in FTO. Sonestedt E, Gullberg B, Ericson U, Wirfält E, Hedblad B, Orho-Melander M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20975728 Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 May;35(5):666-75. Epub 2010 Oct 26. Association between the APOA2 promoter polymorphism and body weight in Mediterranean and Asian populations: replication of a gene-saturated fat interaction. Corella D, Tai ES, Sorlí JV, Chew SK, Coltell O, Sotos-Prieto M, García-Rios A, Estruch R, Ordovas JM.
  • http://www.jlr.org/content/41/13/2002.long J Lipid Res. 2000 Dec;41(13):2002-8. Effects of an Ala54Thr polymorphism in the intestinal fatty acidbinding protein on responses to dietary fat in humans. Pratley RE, Baier L, Pan DA, Salbe AD, Storlien L, Ravussin E, Bogardus C.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=17211608 J Mol Med (Berl). 2007 Feb;85(2):119-28. Epub 2007 Jan 9. APOA5 gene variation modulates the effects of dietary fat intake on body mass index and obesity risk in the Framingham Heart Study. Corella D, Lai CQ, Demissie S, Cupples LA, Manning AK, Tucker KL, Ordovas JM.
  • http://jn.nutrition.org/content/139/13/2301.long J Nutr. 2009 Dec;139(13):2301-8. Epub 2009 Oct 14. Apolipoprotein A5 polymorphisms interact with total dietary fat intake in association with markers of metabolic syndrome in Puerto Rican older adults. Mattei J, Demissie S, Tucker KL, Ordovas JM.
  • http://jn.nutrition.org/content/141/13/2219.long J Nutr. 2011 Dec;141(13):2219-25. Epub 2011 Nov 2. A High Intake of Saturated Fatty Acids Strengthens the Association between the Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene and BMI. Corella D, Arnett DK, Tucker KL, Kabagambe EK, Tsai M, Parnell LD, Lai CQ, Lee YC, Warodomwichit D, Hopkins PN, Ordovas JM.
  • http://jn.nutrition.org/content/141/3/380.long J Nutr. 2011 Mar;141(3):380-5. Epub 2011 Jan 5. APOA5 gene variation interacts with dietary fat intake to modulate obesity and circulating triglycerides in a Mediterranean population. Sánchez-Moreno C, Ordovás JM, Smith CE, Baraza JC, Lee YC, Garaulet M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=16311100 Metabolism. 2005 Dec;54(13):1652-8. Comparison of the acute response to meals enriched with cis- or trans-fatty acids on glucose and lipids in overweight individuals with differing FABP2 genotypes. Lefevre M, Lovejoy JC, Smith SR, Delany JP, Champagne C, Most MM, Denkins Y, de Jonge L, Rood J, Bray GA.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=14981327 Obes Res. 2004 Feb;13(2):340-5.Intestinal FABP2 A54T polymorphism: association with insulin resistance and obesity in women. Albala C, Santos JL, Cifuentes M, Villarroel AC, Lera L, Liberman C, Angel B, Pérez-Bravo F.

Statement 2

People react differently to the carbohydrate content in food. An adaptation of the carbohydrate content makes sense.

A study in the "Journal of Nutrition" has shown that people with the Gln27Glu polymorphism in the gene ADRB2 have significantly higher tendency to become overweight (OR: 2.56) when they receive more than 49% of daily calories from carbohydrates.

Publications

  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13888635 J Nutr. 2003 Aug;133(8):2549-54. Obesity risk is associated with carbohydrate intake in women carrying the Gln27Glu beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism. Martínez JA, Corbalán MS, Sánchez-Villegas A, Forga L, Marti A, Martínez-González MA.

Statement 3

Genes influence a particular weight loss program with up to 2.5 times better or worse success.

A study from (Lindi et al., Diabetes 51: 2581-2586, 2002) came to the conclusion that people who followed a light three-year diet and exercise program loose about 2.5 times more weight if they have the favorable variant of a gene than people with the unfavorable variant (on average, 8.3 kg compared to 3.4 kg). However, the favorable variant had one drawback: one year after the study, the body weight of the subjects was measured again, showing that the people with the favorable variant had gained significantly more weight than the group with the really unfavorable variant. Thus, the favorable variant makes sports and diet effective, but unfortunately, the yo-yo effect is stronger.

Publications

  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=13145174 Diabetes. 2002 Aug;51(8):2581-6. Association of the Pro13Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma2 gene with 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes and body weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lindi VI, Uusitupa MI, Lindström J, Louheranta A, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Tuomilehto J; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

Statement 4

Genetic polymorphisms affect how the body responds to sport for losing weight.

The effectiveness of sport for losing weight is strongly influenced by the genes. The study (Diabetes Obes Metab. 2002 Nov;4(6):428-30.) is one of the many studies showing that people with a particular gene variant in the ADRB2 gene had a significant genetic tendency to be overweight, but only if they led an inactive lifestyle. If these people practice sport, the genetic defect had no influence on their tendency to be overweight. The effect of the gene defect could therefore be annulled by a lifestyle change. An independent study analysing the same gene (Diabetes Care. 1997 Dec;20(13):1887-90.) shows that people with the less favourable variant of the gene loose significantly less weight through sport than the persons with the favourable variant, even if they make as much effort as the ones from the control group. So for them sport is not the best weight-loss strategy. Every gym employee is familiar with these significant differences in weight-loss success. These genetic effects was confirmed by many other studies (Eur J Intern Med. 2007 Dec;18(8):587-92, Obes Res. 2004 May;13(5):807-15., Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Sep;27(9):1028-36).

Publications

  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=16741364 Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Apr;14(4):529-644. The human obesity gene map: the 2005 update. Rankinen T, Zuberi A, Chagnon YC, Weisnagel SJ, Argyropoulos G, Walts B, Pérusse L, Bouchard C.
  • http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/90/5/1418.long Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1418-25. Epub 2009 Sep 2. Fat and carbohydrate intake modify the association between genetic variation in the FTO genotype and obesity. Sonestedt E, Roos C, Gullberg B, Ericson U, Wirfält E, Orho-Melander M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20650268 Clin Chim Acta. 2010 Nov 11;411(21-22):1716-22. Epub 2010 Jul 25. Effects of common FTO gene variants associated with BMI on dietary intake and physical activity in Koreans. Lee HJ, Kim IK, Kang JH, Ahn Y, Han BG, Lee JY, Song J.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=9405913 Diabetes Care. 1997 Dec;20(13):1887-90. Effects of Trp64Arg mutation in the beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene on weight loss, body fat distribution, glycemic control, and insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetic patients. Sakane N, Yoshida T, Umekawa T, Kogure A, Takakura Y, Kondo M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=13406043 Diabetes Obes Metab. 2002 Nov;4(6):428-30. TRP64ARG polymorphism of the beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene and obesity risk: effect modification by a sedentary lifestyle. Marti A, Corbalán MS, Martínez-Gonzalez MA, Martinez JA.
  • http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/51/8/2581.long Diabetes. 2002 Aug;51(8):2581-6. Association of the Pro13Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma2 gene with 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes and body weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lindi VI, Uusitupa MI, Lindström J, Louheranta A, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Tuomilehto J; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=15986237 Diabetologia. 2005 Aug;48(8):1503-9. Epub 2005 Jun 29. Influence of Pro13Ala peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 polymorphism on glucose response to exercise training in type 2 diabetes. Adamo KB, Sigal RJ, Williams K, Kenny G, Prud'homme D, Tesson F.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=18054709 Eur J Intern Med. 2007 Dec;18(8):587-92. Epub 2007 Sep 10. Influence of the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta 3 adrenoreceptor gene on insulin resistance, adipocytokine response, and weight loss secondary to lifestyle modification in obese patients. de Luis DA, Gonzalez Sagrado M, Aller R, Izaola O, Conde R.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=15778927 Horm Metab Res. 2005 Feb;37(2):99-105. Influence of the PPARgamma2 Pro13Ala and ACE I/D polymorphisms on insulin sensitivity and training effects in healthy offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects. Østergård T, Ek J, Hamid Y, Saltin B, Pedersen OB, Hansen T, Schmitz O.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21179003 Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Aug;35(8):1041-9. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2010.263. Epub 2010 Dec 21. Association between fat intake, physical activity and mortality depending on genetic variation in FTO. Sonestedt E, Gullberg B, Ericson U, Wirfält E, Hedblad B, Orho-Melander M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=13917707 Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Sep;27(9):1028-36. Difficulty in losing weight by behavioral intervention for women with Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene. Shiwaku K, Nogi A, Anuurad E, Kitajima K, Enkhmaa B, Shimono K, Yamane Y.
  • http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/83/7/2441.long J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Jul;83(7):2441-4.Meta-analysis of the association of Trp64Arg polymorphism of beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene with body mass index. Fujisawa T, Ikegami H, Kawaguchi Y, Ogihara T.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=11743057 Obes Res. 2001 Dec;9(13):741-5. Association of BMI with the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism in Japanese: meta-analysis. Kurokawa N, Nakai K, Kameo S, Liu ZM, Satoh H.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=15166301 Obes Res. 2004 May;13(5):807-15. Association between body fat response to exercise training and multilocus ADR genotypes. Phares DA, Halverstadt AA, Shuldiner AR, Ferrell RE, Douglass LW, Ryan AS, Goldberg AP, Hagberg JM.

Statement 5

Genes influence the success of a calorie reduction for losing weight. The proportion of carbohydrates and fat in the diet can be customized depending on genetic predisposition. Fat sensitive individuals therefore benefit from a low-fat diet while carbohydrate sensitive persons will benefit more from a low-carb diet.

Therefore, these two genetic tendencies allow drawing conclusions regarding who is sensitive to the amount of carbohydrates and fats in the diet. Thus, if a person is less sensitive to the amount of fat in food, this person shows a tendency to become overweight only when the carbohydrate content is about 49%, according to the publications previously mentioned, and it can be concluded that a higher fat and lower carbohydrate diet will have a positive impact on body weight. A person with the right polymorphisms is not gaining weight with a diet containing more fat and less carbohydrates.

All our results and processes are based on the cutting edge of science and technology, and are optimally adapted to legal requirements.

All citation for DNAnutriControl program

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  • Rankinen T, Zuberi A, Chagnon YC, Weisnagel SJ, Argyropoulos G, Walts B, Pérusse L, Bouchard C. The human obesity gene map: the 2005 update. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Apr;14(4):529-644.
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  • Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec;90(6):1483-8. Epub 2009 Oct 14. The FTO gene rs9939609 obesity-risk allele and loss of control over eating. Tanofsky-Kraff M, Han JC, Anandalingam K, Shomaker LB, Columbo KM, Wolkoff LE, Kozlosky M, Elliott C, Ranzenhofer LM, Roza CA, Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA.
  • Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1418-25. Epub 2009 Sep 2. Fat and carbohydrate intake modify the association between genetic variation in the FTO genotype and obesity. Sonestedt E, Roos C, Gullberg B, Ericson U, Wirfält E, Orho-Melander M.
  • Arch Intern Med. 2009 Nov 9;169(20):1897-906. APOA2, dietary fat, and body mass index: replication of a gene-diet interaction in 3 independent populations. Corella D, Peloso G, Arnett DK, Demissie S, Cupples LA, Tucker K, Lai CQ, Parnell LD, Coltell O, Lee YC, Ordovas JM.
  • Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998 Oct;18(10):1606-10. Postprandial lipemic response is modified by the polymorphism at codon 54 of the fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene. Agren JJ, Valve R, Vidgren H, Laakso M, Uusitupa M.
  • Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007;45(3):316-20. Polymorphisms in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and cholesterol responsiveness to dietary change. Hubacek JA, Bohuslavova R, Skodova Z, Pitha J, Bobkova D, Poledne R.
  • Clin Chim Acta. 2010 Nov 11;411(21-22):1716-22. Epub 2010 Jul 25. Effects of common FTO gene variants associated with BMI on dietary intake and physical activity in Koreans. Lee HJ, Kim IK, Kang JH, Ahn Y, Han BG, Lee JY, Song J.
  • Clin Genet. 2003 Feb;63(2):109-16. The PPAR-gamma P13A polymorphism modulates the relationship between dietary fat intake and components of the metabolic syndrome: results from the Québec Family Study. Robitaille J, Després JP, Pérusse L, Vohl MC. Page 35 of 37
  • Diabetes Care. 1997 Dec;20(13):1887-90. Effects of Trp64Arg mutation in the beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene on weight loss, body fat distribution, glycemic control, and insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetic patients. Sakane N, Yoshida T, Umekawa T, Kogure A, Takakura Y, Kondo M.
  • Diabetes Obes Metab. 2002 Nov;4(6):428-30. TRP64ARG polymorphism of the beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene and obesity risk: effect modification by a sedentary lifestyle. Marti A, Corbalán MS, Martínez-Gonzalez MA, Martinez JA.
  • Diabetes. 2002 Aug;51(8):2581-6. Association of the Pro13Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma2 gene with 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes and body weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lindi VI, Uusitupa MI, Lindström J, Louheranta A, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Tuomilehto J; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.
  • Diabetologia. 2005 Aug;48(8):1503-9. Epub 2005 Jun 29. Influence of Pro13Ala peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 polymorphism on glucose response to exercise training in type 2 diabetes. Adamo KB, Sigal RJ, Williams K, Kenny G, Prud'homme D, Tesson F.
  • Eur J Intern Med. 2007 Dec;18(8):587-92. Epub 2007 Sep 10. Influence of the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta 3 adrenoreceptor gene on insulin resistance, adipocytokine response, and weight loss secondary to lifestyle modification in obese patients. de Luis DA, Gonzalez Sagrado M, Aller R, Izaola O, Conde R.
  • Horm Metab Res. 2005 Feb;37(2):99-105. Influence of the PPARgamma2 Pro13Ala and ACE I/D polymorphisms on insulin sensitivity and training effects in healthy offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects. Østergård T, Ek J, Hamid Y, Saltin B, Pedersen OB, Hansen T, Schmitz O.
  • Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Aug;35(8):1041-9. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2010.263. Epub 2010 Dec 21. Association between fat intake, physical activity and mortality depending on genetic variation in FTO. Sonestedt E, Gullberg B, Ericson U, Wirfält E, Hedblad B, Orho-Melander M.
  • Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 May;35(5):666-75. Epub 2010 Oct 26. Association between the APOA2 promoter polymorphism and body weight in Mediterranean and Asian populations: replication of a gene-saturated fat interaction. Corella D, Tai ES, Sorlí JV, Chew SK, Coltell O, Sotos-Prieto M, García-Rios A, Estruch R, Ordovas JM.
  • Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Sep;27(9):1028-36. Difficulty in losing weight by behavioral intervention for women with Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene. Shiwaku K, Nogi A, Anuurad E, Kitajima K, Enkhmaa B, Shimono K, Yamane Y.
  • J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26;276(43):39679-84. Epub 2001 Aug 3. The polymorphism at codon 54 of the FABP2 gene increases fat absorption in human intestinal explants. Levy E, Ménard D, Delvin E, Stan S, Mitchell G, Lambert M, Ziv E, Feoli-Fonseca JC, Seidman E.
  • J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Jul;83(7):2441-4.Meta-analysis of the association of Trp64Arg polymorphism of beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene with body mass index. Fujisawa T, Ikegami H, Kawaguchi Y, Ogihara T.
  • J Lipid Res. 2000 Dec;41(13):2002-8. Effects of an Ala54Thr polymorphism in the intestinal fatty acidbinding protein on responses to dietary fat in humans. Pratley RE, Baier L, Pan DA, Salbe AD, Storlien L, Ravussin E, Bogardus C.
  • J Mol Med (Berl). 2007 Feb;85(2):119-28. Epub 2007 Jan 9. APOA5 gene variation modulates the effects of dietary fat intake on body mass index and obesity risk in the Framingham Heart Study. Corella D, Lai CQ, Demissie S, Cupples LA, Manning AK, Tucker KL, Ordovas JM. Page 36 of 37
  • J Nutr. 2003 Aug;133(8):2549-54. Obesity risk is associated with carbohydrate intake in women carrying the Gln27Glu beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism. Martínez JA, Corbalán MS, Sánchez-Villegas A, Forga L, Marti A, Martínez-González MA.
  • J Nutr. 2009 Dec;139(13):2301-8. Epub 2009 Oct 14. Apolipoprotein A5 polymorphisms interact with total dietary fat intake in association with markers of metabolic syndrome in Puerto Rican older adults. Mattei J, Demissie S, Tucker KL, Ordovas JM.
  • J Nutr. 2011 Dec;141(13):2219-25. Epub 2011 Nov 2. A High Intake of Saturated Fatty Acids Strengthens the Association between the Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene and BMI. Corella D, Arnett DK, Tucker KL, Kabagambe EK, Tsai M, Parnell LD, Lai CQ, Lee YC, Warodomwichit D, Hopkins PN, Ordovas JM.
  • J Nutr. 2011 Mar;141(3):380-5. Epub 2011 Jan 5. APOA5 gene variation interacts with dietary fat intake to modulate obesity and circulating triglycerides in a Mediterranean population. Sánchez-Moreno C, Ordovás JM, Smith CE, Baraza JC, Lee YC, Garaulet M.
  • Metabolism. 2005 Dec;54(13):1652-8. Comparison of the acute response to meals enriched with cisor trans-fatty acids on glucose and lipids in overweight individuals with differing FABP2 genotypes. Lefevre M, Lovejoy JC, Smith SR, Delany JP, Champagne C, Most MM, Denkins Y, de Jonge L, Rood J, Bray GA.
  • Obes Res. 2001 Dec;9(13):741-5. Association of BMI with the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism in Japanese: metaanalysis. Kurokawa N, Nakai K, Kameo S, Liu ZM, Satoh H.
  • Obes Res. 2004 Feb;13(2):340-5.Intestinal FABP2 A54T polymorphism: association with insulin resistance and obesity in women. Albala C, Santos JL, Cifuentes M, Villarroel AC, Lera L, Liberman C, Angel B, Pérez-Bravo F.
  • Obes Res. 2004 May;13(5):807-15. Association between body fat response to exercise training and multilocus ADR genotypes. Phares DA, Halverstadt AA, Shuldiner AR, Ferrell RE, Douglass LW, Ryan AS, Goldberg AP, Hagberg JM.
  • Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Apr;14(4):529-644. The human obesity gene map: the 2005 update. Rankinen T, Zuberi A, Chagnon YC, Weisnagel SJ, Argyropoulos G, Walts B, Pérusse L, Bouchard C.

Pharmaco Sensor (Medication side effects)

  • Bertina, R. M.; Koeleman, B. P. C.; Koster, T.; Rosendaal, F. R.; Dirven, R. J.; de Ronde, H.; van der Velden, P. A.; Reitsma, P. H. : Mutation in blood coagulation factor V associated with resistance to activated protein C. Nature 369: 64-67, 1994. PubMed ID : 8164741
  • J.-M.Hahn, Innere Medizin, 5.Auflage, S.321-323 ➤ Ridker, P. M.; Miletich, J. P.; Stampfer, M. J.; Goldhaber, S. Z.; Lindpaintner, K.; Hennekens, C. H. : Factor V Leiden and risks of recurrent idiopathic venous thromboembolism. Circulation 92: 2800-2802, 1995. PubMed ID : 7586244
  • A.Encke, H.K. Bredding, Die venöse Thrombose- Prophylaxe und Therapie, 2000, S.45-49, S.150-158 ➤ Rosendaal FR, Koster T, Vanderroucke, JP, and others. High risk of thrombosis in patients homozygous for factor V Leiden (activated protein C resistance). Blood 1995; 85: 1504-8.
  • Internist MR Dr.Karl F.Maier, Thrombosen und Venenerkrankungen, 2003, S.37-82 ➤ Bettina Kemkes-Matthes/Oehler, Blutgerinnung und Thrombose, 3.Auflage, 2001, S.69-132
  • Lüllmann, Pharmakologie und Toxologie, 16. Auflage, S.178-199, 362-404
  • MSD Manual, Handbuch Gesundheit, 2.Auflage
  • Lancet. 1995 Dec 16;346(8990):1593-6. Enhancement by factor V Leiden mutation of risk of deep-vein thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives containing a third-generation progestagen. Bloemenkamp KW, Rosendaal FR, Helmerhorst FM, Büller HR, Vandenbroucke JP.
  • Majerus, P. W. : Bad blood by mutation. Nature 369: 14-15, 1994. PubMed ID : 8164730
  • Juul, K.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Schnohr, P.; Nordestgaard, B. G. : Factor V Leiden and the risk for venous thromboembolism in the adult Danish population. Ann. Intern. Med. 140: 330-337, 2004. PubMed ID : 14996674
  • Braun, A.; Muller, B.; Rosche, A. A. : Population study of the G1691A mutation (R506Q, FV Leiden) in the human factor V gene that is associated with resistance to activated protein C. Hum. Genet. 97: 263-264, 1996. PubMed ID : 8566967
  • Gomes, M. P. V., Deitcher, S. R. (2004). Risk of Venous Thromboembolic Disease Associated With Hormonal Contraceptives and Hormone Replacement Therapy: A Clinical Review. Arch Intern Med 164: 1965-1976
  • Higher risk of venous thrombosis during early use of oral contraceptives in women with inherited clotting defects; Kitty W, Arch Intern Med, Vol 160, Jan 10, 2000.
  • Anderson J.L. et al., 2007; PMID 17989110
  • Flockhart D.A. et al., 2008; PMID 18281922
  • Herrington D., 2008; www.theheart.org/article/924397.do
  • The International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium, 2009; PMID 19228618

HIV Sensor (HIV Resistance)

  • Huang Y, Paxton WA, Wolinsky SM, Neumann AU, Zhang L, He T, Kang S, Ceradini D, Jin Z, Yazdanbakhsh K, Kunstman K, Erickson D, Dragon E, Landau NR, Phair J, Ho DD, Koup RA. The role of a mutant CCR5 allele in HIV-1 transmission and disease progression. Nat Med. 1996 Nov;2(11):1240-3.
  • Fellay J, Ge D, Shianna KV, Colombo S, Ledergerber B, Cirulli ET, Urban TJ, Zhang K, Gumbs CE, Smith JP, Castagna A, Cozzi-Lepri A, De Luca A, Easterbrook P, Günthard HF, Mallal S, Mussini C, Dalmau J, Martinez-Picado J, Miro JM, Obel N, Wolinsky SM, Martinson JJ, Detels R, Margolick JB, Jacobson LP, Descombes P, Antonarakis SE, Beckmann JS, O'Brien SJ, Letvin NL, McMichael AJ, Haynes BF, Carrington M, Feng S, Telenti A, Goldstein DB; NIAID Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI). Common genetic variation and the control of HIV-1 in humans. PLoS Genet. 2009 Dec;5(12):e1000791. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000791. Epub 2009 Dec 24.
  • Hütter G, Blüthgen C, Neumann M, Reinwald M, Nowak D, Klüter H. Coregulation of HIV-1 dependency factors in individuals heterozygous to the CCR5-delta32 deletion. AIDS Res Ther. 2013 Nov 18;10(1):26. doi: 10.1186/1742-6405-10-26.
  • Agrawal L, Jin Q, Altenburg J, Meyer L, Tubiana R, Theodorou I, Alkhatib G. CCR5Delta32 protein expression and stability are critical for resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vivo. J Virol. 2007 Aug;81(15):8041-9. Epub 2007 May 23.

Breast Health Sensor (Breast cancer)

  • Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Auranen A et al. Int J Cancer. 2005 Nov 20;117(4):611-8.
  • Genetic polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes XRCC1, XRCC2 and XRCC3 and risk of breast cancer in Cyprus. Loizidou MA, Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 Dec;112(3):575-9. Epub 2008 Jan 10.
  • Association of a common variant of the CASP8 gene with reduced risk of breast cancer. MacPherson G et al. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Dec 15;96(24):1866-9.
  • A common coding variant in CASP8 is associated with breast cancer risk. Cox A. et al. Nat Genet. 2007 Mar;39(3):352-8. Epub 2007 Feb 11.
  • Commonly studied single-nucleotide polymorphisms and breast cancer: results from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Breast Cancer Association Consortium. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Oct 4;98(19):1382-96.
  • A genome-wide association study identifies alleles in FGFR2 associated with risk of sporadic postmenopausal breast cancer. Hunter DJ et al, Nat Genet. 2007 Jul;39(7):870-4. Epub 2007 May 27.
  • Women’s Health Initiative, zitiert nach Gyne online, 4. Juni 2007
  • Reynolds P, et al.: Active smoking, household passive smoking, and breast cancer: evidence from the California Teachers Study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2004 (96):29-37
  • Sonnenmangel fördert Krebs!, Medical Tribune, 42. Jg., Nr. 23, 8. Juni 2007, S. 21
  • Alexander Katalinic, Carmen Bartel: Epidemiologie Mammakarzinom. Universität Lübeck, 2006.
  • Genome-wide association study identifies novel breast cancer susceptibility loci. Easton DF, Nature. 2007 Jun 28;447(7148):1087-93.
  • Genome-wide association study identifies novel breast cancer susceptibility loci. DF Easton et al. Nature. 2007 June 28; 447(7148): 1087–1093
  • Common variants on chromosomes 2q35 and 16q12 confer susceptibility to estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Stacey SN et al. Nat Genet. 2007 Jul;39(7):865-9. Epub 2007 May 27.
  • Association of Genetic Variants at 8q24 with Breast Cancer Risk. O. Fletcher et al. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention March 2008 17; 702
  • TGFBR1*6A/9A polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 13,662 cases and 14,147 controls. Liao RY, Mao C, Qiu LX, Ding H, Chen Q, Pan HF. Mol Biol Rep. 2009 Nov 1.
  • Hemminki K, Försti A, Lorenzo Bermejo J. Surveying germline genomic landscape of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008.
  • S3-Leitlinie Brustkrebs-Früherkennung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Senologie und der deutschen Krebshilfe e. V., 2008.
  • Souci, Fachmann, Kraut: Nährwerttabellen. medpharm, Stuttgart 2008 Souci-Fachmann-Kraut-Datenbank
  • Wissenschaftlicher Lebensmittelausschuss der Europäischen Kommission: Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Vitamin D.
  • Cox A. et al., 2007; PMID 17293864
  • Easton D.F. et al., 2007; PMID 17529967
  • Garcia-Closas M., 2008; PMID 18437204
  • Pharoah P. D. et al., 2008; PMID 18579814
  • Stacey S.N. et al., 2007; PMID 17529974
  • McKay J.D. et al., 2009; PMID 19124512
  • Raimondi et al., 2009; PMID 19403841
  • Sinotte M. et al., 2008; PMID 18719092
  • Tang C. et al., 2009; PMID 19145484

Prostate Health Sensor (Prostate cancer)

  • S. Lilly Zheng et al. Cumulative Association of Five Genetic Variants with Prostate Cancer, N Engl J Med 2008;358:910-9
  • Holick CN, Stanford JL, Kwon EM, Ostrander EA, Nejentsev S, Peters U. Comprehensive association analysis of the vitamin D pathway genes, VDR, CYP27B1, and CYP24A1, in prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Oct;16(10):1990-9.
  • S. Lilly Zheng et al. Association Between Two Unlinked Loci at 8q24 and Prostate Cancer Risk Among European Americans. JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2007 99(20):1525-1533
  • Zhiyong Ma et al, Polymorphisms of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 have association with the development of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia and the progression of prostate cancer in a Japanese population. Int. J. Cancer: 123, 2574–2579 (2008)
  • H. Nguyen et al.:Normal Human Ejaculatory Duct Anatomy: A Study of Cadaveric and Surgical Specimens In: The Journal of Urology, Volume 155, Issue 5, Pages 1639-1642
  • www.krebshilfe.net
  • Barry MJ, Fowler FJ, O'Leary MP, et al. (November 1992). "The American Urological Association symptom index for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Measurement Committee of the American Urological Association".
  • eMedicine - Transurethral Microwave Thermotherapy of the Prostate (TUMT) : Article by Jonathan Rubenstein
  • www.urologielehrbuch.de
  • PreventProstateCancer.info: A Brief Overview of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
  • MacDonald R; Wilt TJ; Howe RW (December 2004). "Doxazosin for treating lower urinary tract symptoms compatible with benign prostatic obstruction: a systematic review of efficacy and adverse effects". BJU International 94 (9): 1263–70.
  • MacDonald R; Wilt TJ (October 2005). "Alfuzosin for treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms compatible with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review of efficacy and adverse effects". Urology 66 (4): 780–8.
  • Roehrborn CG (December 2001). "Efficacy and safety of oncedaily alfuzosin in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms and clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized, placebocontrolled trial". Urology 58 (6): 953–9.
  • Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate; Results at 6 Years, Gilling PJ, Aho, TF, Frampton CM, et al. Eur Urol 2008 Apr:53(4):744-9
  • Bundesministerium für Gesundheit
  • http://www.bccancer.bc.ca
  • Jemal A, Murray T, Ward E, Samuels A, Tiwari RC, Ghafoor A, Feuer EJ, Thun MJ (2005). "Cancer statistics, 2005". CA Cancer J Clin 55 (1): 10–30.
  • Miller DC, Hafez KS, Stewart A, Montie JE, Wei JT (September 2003). "Prostate carcinoma presentation, diagnosis, and staging: an update form the National Cancer Data Base". Cancer 98 (6): 1169–78
  • Mongiat-Artus P, Peyromaure M, Richaud P, Droz JP, Rainfray M, Jeandel C, Rebillard X, Moreau JL, Davin JL, Salomon L, Soulié M (December 2009). "[Recommendations for the treatment of prostate cancer in the elderly man: A study by the oncology committee of the French association of urology]" (in French). Prog. Urol. 19 (11): 810–7
  • Picard JC, Golshayan AR, Marshall DT, Opfermann KJ, Keane TE (November 2009). "The multi-disciplinary management of high-risk prostate cancer". Urol. Oncol
  • Prostatakrebs-Kodierhilfe. Tumorzentrum Freiburg 2007
  • UICC: What are the changes between the 6th and 7th editions?
  • Christian Wittekind, Hans-Joachim Meyer (Hrsg.): TNM: Klassifikation maligner Tumoren. Wiley-VCH Verlag, 7. Auflage 2010
  • Ronald J. Zagoria, Glenn A. Tung: Genitourinary Radiology. Mosby, St. Louis 1997
  • Poon KS, McVary KT. Curr Urol Rep. 2009 Jul;10(4):279-86. Dietary patterns, supplement use, and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • C.M. Yablon, M.P. Banner, P. Ramchandani, E.S. Rovner: Complications of prostate cancer treatment: spectrum of imaging findings. Radiographics (2004) 24(Suppl 1):S181-S194
  • G. L. Lu-Yao u. a.: Survival following primary androgen deprivation therapy among men with localized prostate cancer. In: JAMA 300, 2008, S. 173–181
  • I. F. Tannock u. a.: Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer. In: NEJM 351, 2004, S. 1502–1512.
  • C.R. Porter et al.: 25-year prostate cancer control and survival outcomes: a 40-year radical prostatectomy single institution series. J Urol. (2006) 176(2):569-74
  • American Cancer Society
  • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie
  • Berkow SE et al.: Diet and survival after prostate cancer diagnosis. Nutr Rev. (2007) 65(9):391-403
  • Kolonel LN: Fat, meat, and prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev (2001) 23(1):72-81
  • Michaud et al.: A prospective study on intake of animal products and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control. (2001) 12(6):557-67.
  • Skinner HG, Schwartz GG: Serum calcium and incident and fatal prostate cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. (2008) 17: 2302-5
  • Sonnenmangel fördert Krebs!, Medical Tribune, 42. Jg., Nr. 23, 8. Juni 2007, S. 21
  • Wigle DT, Turner MC, Gomes J, Parent ME (March 2008). "Role of hormonal and other factors in human prostate cancer". Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews 11 (3-4): 242–59
  • Kirsh VA, Peters U, Mayne ST, Subar AF, Chatterjee N, Johnson CC, Hayes RB (August 2007). "Prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 99 (15): 1200–9
  • Shannon J, Phoutrides E, Palma A, Farris P, Peters L, Forester A, Tillotson CJ, Garzotto M (2009). "Folate intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study". Nutr Cancer 61 (5): 617–28
  • Herschman JD, Smith DS, Catalona WJ (August 1997). "Effect of ejaculation on serum total and free prostate-specific antigen concentrations". Urology 50 (2): 239–43

Cardiovascular Sensor (Metabolism disorders)

  • Herold, Innere Medizin 2008
  • MSD Manual, Handbuch Gesundheit, Goldmann, 2.Auflage
  • Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Bekämpfung von Fettstoffwechselstörungen und ihren Folgeerkrankungen DGFF e.V
  • Cholesterin, Wozu wir es brauchen und warum es uns krank macht, C.H.Beck, 1999 Dr. Ursel Wahrburg, Dr. Gerd Assmann
  • Cholesterin, Risiko für Herz und Gefäße, Edita Pospisil, 2008
  • NCEP, Nationales Cholesterin-Erziehungsprogramm
  • Daniel Steinberg (2007). The Cholesterol Wars: The Cholesterol Skeptics vs the Preponderance of Evidence. Boston: Academic Press.
  • Philips et al. Gene-nutrient interaction and gender may modulate the association between ApoA1 And ApoB gene polymorphisms and metabolic syndrom risk. Atherosclerosis 2011.214(2):408-14 American Heart Association
  • Olson RE (February 1998). ""Discovery of the lipoproteins, their role in fat transport and their significance as risk factors"". J. Nutr. 128 (2 Suppl): 439S–443S. PMID 9478044
  • Lewington S, Whitlock G, Clarke R, Sherliker P, Emberson J, Halsey J, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R (December 2007). ""Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths"". Lancet 370 (9602): 1829–39.
  • National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)
  • Atherosclerosis. 2011 Feb:214(2):397-403. Epub 2010 Nov 16. Strong association of the APOA5-1131T>C gene variant and earlyonset acute myocardial infarction. De Caterina R, Talmud PJ, Merlini PA, Foco L, Pastorino R, Altshuler D, Mauri F, Peyvandi F, Lina D, Kathiresan S, Bernardinelli L, Ardissino D: Gruppo Italiano Aterosclerosi
  • Defesche, J. C.. Kastelein, J. J. P. : Molecular epidemiology of familial hypercholesterolaemia. (Letter) Lancet 352: 1643-1644, 1998
  • Hobbs et al. 1992 Hum Mut 1:445
  • Defesche et al. 1998 FH workshop 1997
  • Lombardi et al. 1998 MEDPED 1998
  • Redeker et al. 1998 EAS 98
  • Schmidt et al. 2000 Atheroscler 148: 431
  • Association of APOE genotype with carotid atherosclerosis in men and women, the framingham Heart Study: Roberto Elosua et al. The journal of lipid research 45, 1868-1875, 2004"
  • Bilguvar K. et al., 2008; PMID 18997786
  • Helgadottir A. et al., 2008; PMID 18176561
  • Helgadottir A. et al., 2007; PMID 17478679
  • Karvanen J. et al., 2009; PMID 18979498
  • Samani N.J. et al., 2007; PMID 17634449
  • Schunkert H. et al., 2008; PMID 18362232
  • Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2007; PMID 17554300
  • Aarnoudse A.J. et al., 2007; PMID 17576865
  • Arking D.E. et al., 2006; PMID 16648850
  • Eijgelsheim M. et al., 2009; PMID 18927126
  • Kao W.H. et al., 2009; PMID 19204306
  • Lehtinen A.B. et al, 2008; PMID 18235038
  • Newton-Cheh C. et al., 2007; PMID 17903306
  • Raitakari O.T. et al., 2009; PMID 18785031
  • Ashfield-Watt P.A. et al., 2002; PMID 12081832
  • Bonaa K.H. et al.; 2006; PMID 16531614
  • Khandanpour N. et al., 2009; PMID 19157768
  • Lewis S.J. et al., 2005; PMID 16216822
  • Lichtenstein A.H., 2009; PMID 18997166
  • Lonn E. et al., 2006; PMID 16531613
  • McNulty H. et al., 2008; PMID 18412997
  • Ruiz J.R. et al., 2007; PMID 17298693
  • Wald D.S. et al., 2006; PMID 17124224
  • Wang X. et al., 2007; PMID 17544768
  • Angotti E. et al., 1994; PMID 8021234
  • Juo S.H. et al., 1999; PMID 10215547
  • Ordovas J.M. et al., 2002; PMID 11756058
  • Ordovas J.M., 2004; PMID 15070444
  • Subbiah M.T., 2007; PMID 17240315
  • Tuteja R. et al., 1992; PMID 1618307
  • Angelopoulos T.J. et al., 2008; PMID 18806463
  • Bennet A.M. et al., 2007; PMID 17878422
  • Caslake M.J. et al., 2008; PMID 18779276
  • Jofre-Monseny L. et al., 2008; PMID 18203129
  • Lovegrove J.A. et al., 2008; PMID 18412994 and PMID 18721398
  • Masson L.F. et al., 2003; 12716659
  • Minihane A.M. et al., 2007; PMID 17466101
  • Minihane A.M. et al., 2000; PMID 10938022
  • Aberle J. et al., 2005; PMID 15996212
  • Aouizerat B.E. et al., 2003; PMID 12671030
  • Dorfmeister B. et al., 2007; PMID 17197160
  • Evans D. et al., 2003; PMID 12937897
  • Grallert H. et al., 2007; PMID 17768309
  • Klos K.L. et al., 2005; PMID 15604515
  • Lai C.Q. et al., 2007; PMID 17431185
  • Lai C.Q. et al., 2006; PMID 16636175
  • Maász A. et al., 2007; PMID 17922054
  • Szalai C. et al., 2004; PMID 15177130
  • Vaessen S.F. et al., 2006; PMID 16769999
  • Wang J. et al., 2008; PMID 18779834
  • Yamada Y. et al., 2007; PMID 16806226 Thrombo Sensor (Thrombose)
  • Bertina, R. M.; Koeleman, B. P. C.; Koster, T.; Rosendaal, F. R.; Dirven, R. J.; de Ronde, H.; van der Velden, P. A.; Reitsma, P. H. : Mutation in blood coagulation factor V associated with resistance to activated protein C. Nature 369: 64-67, 1994. PubMed ID : 8164741
  • J.-M.Hahn, Innere Medizin, 5.Auflage, S.321-323
  • Ridker, P. M.; Miletich, J. P.; Stampfer, M. J.; Goldhaber, S. Z.; Lindpaintner, K.; Hennekens, C. H. : Factor V Leiden and risks of recurrent idiopathic venous thromboembolism. Circulation 92: 2800-2802, 1995. PubMed ID : 7586244
  • A.Encke, H.K. Bredding, Die venöse Thrombose- Prophylaxe und Therapie, 2000, S.45-49, S.150-158
  • Rosendaal FR, Koster T, Vanderroucke, JP, and others. High risk of thrombosis in patients homozygous for factor V Leiden (activated protein C resistance). Blood 1995; 85: 1504-8.
  • Internist MR Dr.Karl F.Maier, Thrombosen und Venenerkrankungen, 2003, S.37-82
  • Bettina Kemkes-Matthes/Oehler, Blutgerinnung und Thrombose, 3.Auflage, 2001, S.69-132
  • Lüllmann, Pharmakologie und Toxologie, 16. Auflage, S.178-199, 362-404
  • MSD Manual, Handbuch Gesundheit, 2.Auflage
  • Lancet. 1995 Dec 16;346(8990):1593-6. Enhancement by factor V Leiden mutation of risk of deep-vein thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives containing a third-generation progestagen. Bloemenkamp KW, Rosendaal FR, Helmerhorst FM, Büller HR, Vandenbroucke JP.
  • Majerus, P. W. : Bad blood by mutation. Nature 369: 14-15, 1994. PubMed ID : 8164730
  • Juul, K.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Schnohr, P.; Nordestgaard, B. G. : Factor V Leiden and the risk for venous thromboembolism in the adult Danish population. Ann. Intern. Med. 140: 330-337, 2004. PubMed ID : 14996674
  • Braun, A.; Muller, B.; Rosche, A. A. : Population study of the G1691A mutation (R506Q, FV Leiden) in the human factor V gene that is associated with resistance to activated protein C. Hum. Genet. 97: 263-264, 1996. PubMed ID : 8566967
  • Corsetti J.P. et al., 2008; PMID 18096824
  • Gardemann A. et al., 1999; PMID 10494775
  • Martinelli N. et al., 2008; PMID 18253477
  • Roest M. et al., 2000; PMID 10618306
  • Saely C.H. et al., 2008; PMID 18619429
  • Tsantes A.E. et al., 2007; PMID 17581326
  • Tsantes A.E. et al., 2007; PMID 17549286
  • Ye Z. et al., 2006; PMID 16503463
  • Burzotta F. et al., 2004; PMID 14676252
  • Casas J. P. et al., 2004; PMID 15534175
  • Cushman M. et al., 2004; PMID 15467059
  • Dentali F. et al., 2006; PMID 16397131
  • Marchiori A. et al., 2007; PMID 17650440
  • Psaty B.M. et al., 2001; PMID 11180734
  • Dentali F. et al., 2006; PMID 16397131
  • Juul K. et al., 2004; PMID 14996674
  • Marchiori A. et al., 2007; PMID 17650440
  • Mohllajee A.P. et al., 2006; PMID 16413847
  • Rosendaal F.R. et al., 2002; PMID 11886391
  • Rossouw J.E. et al., 2002; PMID 12117397
  • Scarabin P.Y. et al. 2003; PMID 12927428
  • Seed M.; 2004; PMID 15243220
  • Smith N.L. et al. 2004; PMID 15467060
  • Weischer M. et al., 2009; PMID 19524925

Hypertension Sensor (High blood pressure)

  • Ling Lin et al, Angiotensin-converting Enzyme, Sleep-disordered Breathing, and Hypertension, Am J Respir Crit Care Med Vol 170. pp 1349–1353, 2004
  • Amar A et al, Angiotensinogen Polymorphisms and Elevated Blood Pressure in the General Population, Hypertension. 2001;37:875.
  • Kristina Bengtsson et al, Polymorphism in the ß1-Adrenergic Receptor Gene and Hypertension, Circulation. 2001;104:187
  • Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al. (December 2003). "Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure". Hypertension 42 (6): 1206–52.
  • Burt VL, Cutler JA, Higgins M, et al. (July 1995). "Trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the adult US population. Data from the health examination surveys, 1960 to 1991". Hypertension 26 (1): 60–9.
  • Ostchega Y, Dillon CF, Hughes JP, Carroll M, Yoon S (July 2007). "Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in older U.S. adults: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988 to 2004". Journal of the American eriatrics Society 55 (7): 1056–65.
  • Chockalingam A (May 2007). "Impact of World Hypertension Day". The Canadian Journal of Cardiology 23 (7): 517–9.
  • Pitts SR, Adams RP (February 1998). "Emergency department hypertension and regression to the mean". Annals of Emergency Medicine 31 (2): 214–8.
  • Papadakis, Maxine A.; McPhee, Stephen J. (2008). Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2009 (Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment). McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-159124-9.
  • Riccioni G (2009). "The effect of antihypertensive drugs on carotid intima media thickness: an up-to-date review". Current Medicinal Chemistry 16 (8): 988–96.
  • Agabiti-Rosei E (September 2008). "From macro- to microcirculation: benefits in Hypertension and diabetes". Journal of Hypertension 26 Suppl 3: S15–21.
  • Singer DR, Kite A (June 2008). "Management of hypertension in peripheral arterial disease: does the choice of drugs matter?". European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 35 (6):
  • White WB (May 2009). "Defining the problem of treating the patient with hypertension and arthritis pain". The American Journal of Medicine 122 (5 Suppl): S3–9.
  • Pedrinelli R, Dell'Omo G, Talini E, Canale ML, Di Bello V (February 2009). "Systemic hypertension and the right-sided cardiovascular system: a review of the available evidence". Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine (Hagerstown, Md.) 10 (2): 115–21.
  • Giacchetti G, Turchi F, Boscaro M, Ronconi V (April 2009). "Management of primary aldosteronism: its complications and their outcomes after treatment". Current Vascular Pharmacology 7 (2): 244–49.
  • Deutsche Hochdruck Liga: http://www.hochdruckliga.info/ ➤ He J; Ogden LG; Bazzano LA; Vupputuri S, et al. (2001). "Risk factors for congestive heart failure in US men and women: NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study.". Arch. Intern. Med. 161 (7): 996–1002.
  • Rodríguez NA, Zurutuza A (2008). "[Ophthalmological manifestations of arterial hypertension"] (in Spanish; Castilian). Anales Del Sistema Sanitario De Navarra 31 Suppl 3: 13–22.
  • Zeng C, Villar VA, Yu P, Zhou L, Jose PA (April 2009). "Reactive oxygen species and dopamine receptor function in essential hypertension". Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 31 (2): 156–78
  • R. Doll, R. Peto, J. Boreham, I. Sutherland: Mortality in relation to smoking. 50 years' observations on male British doctors. In: BMJ. 328.2004, 7455 (Jun 26), 1519
  • IB Puddey, LJ Beilin, V Rakic: Alcohol, hypertension and the cardiovascular system, a critical appraisal. In: Addict Biol. 2.1997,159–170
  • Chobanian AV u a: The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, the JNC 7 report. In: JAMA. 289.2003,19 (May 21),2560-2572
  • Leitlinien zur Behandlung der arteriellen Hypertonie. Deutsche Hochdruckliga e. V. DHL - Deutsche Hypertonie Gesellschaft. 2007
  • RH Fagard: Exercise characteristics and the blood pressure response to dynamic physical training. In: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 33.2001, 6(Jun), S. 484-492; discussion S. 493-494
  • L. Sandvik u.a.: Physical fitness as a predictor of mortality among healthy, middle-aged Norwegian men. In: N Engl J Med. 25.1993, 328 (Feb 25),533-537
  • MR Law: Epidemiologic evidence on salt and blood pressure. In: Am J Hypertens. 10.1997,5 Pt 2 (May),42S-45S
  • Bao DQ, Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, Beilin LJ: Effects of dietary fish and weight reduction on ambulatory blood pressure in overweight hypertensives. Hypertension. 1998 Oct;32(4):710-7
  • Sacks FM et al; DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group: Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jan 4;344(1):3-10
  • WHO/ISH-Guidelines-Subcommittee: 1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. Guidelines Subcommittee. In: Journal Hypertens. 17.1999,151-183
  • "CG34 Hypertension - quick reference guide" (PDF). National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 28 June 2006. http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/cg034quickrefguide.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-04

Toxo Sensor (Detoxification)

  • García-Closas M et al. NAT2 slow acetylation, GSTM1 null genotype, and risk of bladder cancer: results from the Spanish Bladder Cancer Study and meta-analyses. Lancet. 2005 Aug 20-26;366(9486):649-59.
  • Dufour C et al. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A4, GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and NQO1 and the risk of acquired idiopathic aplastic anemia in Caucasian patients. Haematologica. 2005 Aug;90(8):1027-31.
  • Kyoung-Mu Lee et al. CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 Polymorphisms, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Risk in a Pooled Analysis among Asian Populations. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention May 2008 17; 1120
  • Luch, A. (2005). The Carcinogenic Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. London: Imperial College Press. ISBN 1-86094-417-5.
  • Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung: Polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) in Spielzeug. Aktualisierte Stellungnahme Nr. 051/2009 des BfR vom 14. Oktober 2009, Abschnitt 3.1.3 „Exposition“.
  • Carcinogenesis. 2005 Dec;26(12):2207-12. Epub 2005 Jul 28. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms and risk of lung cancer among never smokers: a population-based study. Wenzlaff AS,
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  • S.W. Baxter, E.J. Thomas and I.G. Campbell. GSTM1 null polymorphism and susceptibility to endometriosis and ovarian cancer. Carcinogenesis, Vol. 22, No. 1, 63-66, January 2001
  • Tamer L, Calikoğlu M, Ates NA, Yildirim H, Ercan B, Saritas E, Unlü A, Atik U. Glutathione-S-transferase gene polymorphisms (GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1) as increased risk factors for asthma. Respirology. 2004 Nov;9(4):493-8.
  • Lee SA, Fowke JH, Lu W, Ye C, Zheng Y, Cai Q, Gu K, Gao YT, Shu XO, Zheng W. Cruciferous vegetables, the GSTP1 Ile105Val genetic polymorphism, and breast cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar;87(3):753-60.
  • Nebert, D.W., Dalton, T.P. 2006. The role of cytochrome P450 enzymes in endogenous signalling pathways and environmental carcinogenesis. Nat. Rev. Cancer. 6:947-960.
  • Lee BE, Hong YC, Park H, Ha M, Koo BS, Chang N, Roh YM, Kim BN, Kim YJ, Kim BM, Jo SJ, Ha EH.Interaction between GSTM1/GSTT1 polymorphism and blood mercury on birth weight.Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Mar;118(3):437-43.
  • Gundacker C, Komarnicki G, Jagiello P, Gencikova A, Dahmen N, Wittmann KJ, Gencik M. Glutathione-S-transferase polymorphism, metallothionein expression, and mercury levels among students in Austria. Sci Total Environ. 2007 Oct 15;385(1-3):37-47. Epub 2007 Aug 22.
  • Kiyohara C, Miyake Y, Koyanagi M, Fujimoto T, Shirasawa S, Tanaka K, Fukushima W, Sasaki S, Tsuboi Y, Yamada T, Oeda T, Miki T, Kawamura N, Sakae N, Fukuyama H, Hirota Y, Nagai M.GST polymorphisms, interaction with smoking and pesticide use, and risk for Parkinson's disease in a Japanese population.Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2010 May 14.
  • Furst A. Can nutrition affect chemical toxicity? Int J Toxicol. 2002 Sep-Oct;21(5):419-24.
  • Am J Hypertens. 2009 Jan;22(1):87-91. Epub 2008 Nov 20. COMT genotype influences the effect of alcohol on blood pressure: results from the COMBINE study. Stewart SH, Oroszi G, Randall PK, Anton RF.
  • Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006 Feb-Apr;27(1-2):231-5. The association between high-activity COMT allele and alcoholism. Serý O, Didden W, Mikes V, Pitelová R, Znojil V, Zvolský P.
  • Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000 Feb;24(2):135-9. Association between the functional polymorphism of catechol-O-methyltransferase gene and alcohol consumption among social drinkers. Kauhanen J, Hallikainen T, Tuomainen TP, Koulu M, Karvonen MK, Salonen JT, Tiihonen J. Source Department of Public Health and General Practice, University of Kuopio, Finland.
  • Bradlow H.L. et al., 1996; PMID 8943806
  • Firozi P.F. et al., 2002; PMID 11872636
  • Lee A.J. et al., 2003; PMID 12865317
  • Vineis P. et al., 2003; PMID 12594823
  • Hanna I.H. et al., 2000; PMID 10910054
  • Tang Y.M., 2000; PMID 11221602
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  • Sreeja L. et al., 2005; PMID 16228113
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  • Chen J. et al., 2004; PMID 15457404
  • Mier D. et al., 2009; PMID 19417742
  • Williams-Gray C.H. et al., 2008; PMID 18178571

Diabetes Sensor (Diabetes Mellitus Type 2)

  • Fehmann, Hans-Christoph; Strowski, Mathias Z.; Göke, Burkhard
  • Diabetes mellitus mit monogen determinierter Störung der Beta- Zell-Funktion: Maturity-onset Diabetes of the Young
  • Dtsch Arztebl 2004; 101: A 860–867 [Heft 13] ➤ www.deutsche-diabetes-gesellschaft.de; Jahres-/Tätigkeitsbericht 2002 der AG Molekularbiologie und Genetik des Diabetes der DDG
  • Herold, Gerd und Mitarbeiter; Innere Medizin
  • Greten, Heiner,Innere Medizin, 11. Auflage Thieme Verlag
  • Matthaei S, Häring HU. Behandlung des Diabetes mellitus Typ 2. Diabetologie 2008; 3 Suppl 2: S157–S161
  • MDS Manual, Handbuch der Gesundheit, 2.Auflage
  • Fajans, S. S.; Bell, G. I.; Polonsky, K. S. : Molecular mechanisms and clinical pathophysiology of maturity-onset diabetes of the young. New Eng. J. Med. 345: 971-980, 2001.
  • Froguel, P.; Velho, G.; Cohen, D.; Passa, P. : Strategies for the collection of sibling-pair data for genetic studies in type 2 (non insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. (Letter) Diabetologia 34: 685 only, 1991
  • Gidh-Jain, M.; Takeda, J.; Xu, L. Z.; Lange, A. J.; Vionnet, N.; Stoffel, M.; Froguel, P.; Velho, G.; Sun, F.; Cohen, D.; Patel, P.; Lo, Y.-M. D.; Hattersley, A. T.; Luthman, H.; Wedell, A.; St. Charles, R.; Harrison, R. W.; Weber, I. T.; Bell, G. I.; Pilkis, S. J. : Glucokinase mutations associated with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus have decreased enzymatic activity: implications for structure/function relationships. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 90: 1932-1936, 1993
  • Ellard, S. : Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF-1-alpha) mutations in maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Hum. Mutat. 16: 377-385, 2000
  • Tong Y, Lin Y, Zhang Y, Yang J, Zhang Y, Liu H, Zhang B; Association between TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes mellitus : a large Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) review and meta-analysis; BMC Med Genet. 2009 Feb 19;10:15
  • Robert Sladek1,2,4, Ghislain Rocheleau1*, Johan Rung4*, Christian Dina5*, Lishuang Shen1, David Serre1,
  • Philippe Boutin5, Daniel Vincent4, Alexandre Belisle4, Samy Hadjadj6, Beverley Balkau7, Barbara Heude7,
  • Guillaume Charpentier8, Thomas J. Hudson4,9, Alexandre Montpetit4, Alexey V. Pshezhetsky10, Marc Prentki10,11,
  • Barry I. Posner2,12, David J. Balding13, David Meyre5, ConstantinPolychronakos1,3 & Philippe Froguel5,14; A genome-wide association study identifies novel risk loci for type 2 diabetes; Nature, Vol 445|22 February 2007
  • Scott, L. J.; Mohlke, K. L.; Bonnycastle, L. L.; Willer, C. J.; Li, Y.; Duren, W. L.; Erdos, M. R.; Stringham, H. M.; Chines, P. S.; Jackson, A. U.; Prokunina-Olsson, L.; Ding, C.-J.; and 29 others : A genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in Finns detects multiple susceptibility variants. Science 316: 1341-1345, 2007
  • van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J. V.; Onland-Moret, N. C.; van Haeften, T. W.; Franke, L.; Elbers, C. C.; Shiri-Sverdlov, R.; van der Schouw, Y. T.; Hofker, M. H.; Wijmenga, C. : HHEX gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes in the Dutch Breda cohort. Europ. J. Hum. Genet. 16: 652-656, 2008
  • Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Nature. 2007 Jun 7;447(7145):661-78.Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls.
  • Nature. 2007 Feb 22;445(7130):881-5. Epub 2007 Feb 11. A genomewide association study identifies novel risk loci for type 2 diabetes. Sladek R, Rocheleau G, Rung J, Dina C, Shen L, Serre D, Boutin P, Vincent D, Belisle A, Hadjadj S, Balkau B, Heude B, Charpentier G, Hudson TJ, Montpetit A, Pshezhetsky AV, Prentki M, Posner BI, Balding DJ, Meyre D, Polychronakos C, Froguel P.
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  • Vaxillaire M. et al., 2008; PMID 17977958
  • Weedon M.N. et al., 2006; PMID 17020404

Alzheimer Sensor (Alzheimer's disease)

  • Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on the association between apolipoprotein E genotype and Alzheimer disease. A meta-analysis. APOE and Alzheimer Disease Meta Analysis Consortium.Farrer LA, Cupples LA, Haines JL, Hyman B, Kukull WA, Mayeux R, Myers RH, Pericak-Vance MA, Risch N, van Duijn CM.JAMA. 1997 Oct 22-29;278(16):1349-56.
  • C. P. Ferri, M. Prince, C. Brayne et al.: Global prevalence of dementia: a Delphi consensus study. In: Lancet. 366, Nr. 9503, 2005, S. 2112-7.
  • Tiraboschi P, Hansen LA, Thal LJ, Corey-Bloom J (June 2004). "The importance of neuritic plaques and tangles to the development and evolution of AD". Neurology 62 (11): 1984–9.
  • "Can Alzheimer's disease be prevented" (pdf). National Institute on Aging. 2006-08-29.
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  • Hashimoto M, Rockenstein E, Crews L, Masliah E (2003). "Role of protein aggregation in mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases". Neuromolecular Med. 4 (1–2): 21–36
  • Su, B; Wang, X; Nunomura, A; Moreira, PI; Lee, HG; Perry, G; Smith, MA; Zhu, X (2008). "Oxidative stress signaling in Alzheimer's disease". Current Alzheimer research 5 (6): 525–32.
  • Wenk GL (2003). "Neuropathologic changes in Alzheimer's disease". J Clin Psychiatry 64 Suppl 9: 7–10
  • R. T. Linn, P. A. Wolf, D. L. Bachman et al.: The 'preclinical phase' of probable Alzheimer's disease. A 13-year prospective study of the Framingham cohort. In: Arch. Neurol.. 52, Nr. 5, 1995
  • J. Saxton, O. L. Lopez, G. Ratcliff et al.: Preclinical Alzheimer disease: neuropsychological test performance 1.5 to 8 years prior to onset. In: Neurology. 63, Nr. 12, 2004, S. 2341–2347.
  • E. W. Twamley, S. A. Ropacki, M. W. Bondi: Neuropsychological and neuroimaging changes in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. In: J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 12, Nr. 5, 2006, S. 707–735
  • Bäckman L, Jones S, Berger AK, Laukka EJ, Small BJ (Sep 2004). "Multiple cognitive deficits during the transition to Alzheimer's disease". J Intern Med 256 (3): 195–204
  • Arnáiz E, Almkvist O (2003). "Neuropsychological features of mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer's disease". Acta Neurol. Scand., Suppl. 179: 34–41
  • Förstl H, Kurz A (1999). "Clinical features of Alzheimer's disease". European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 249 (6): 288–290
  • Solfrizzi V, Capurso C, D'Introno A, et al. (January 2008). "Lifestyle-related factors in predementia and dementia syndromes". Expert Rev Neurother 8 (1): 133–58
  • Patterson C, Feightner JW, Garcia A, Hsiung GY, MacKnight C, Sadovnick AD (February 2008). "Diagnosis and treatment of dementia: 1. Risk assessment and primary prevention of Alzheimer disease". CMAJ 178 (5): 548–56
  • Rosendorff C, Beeri MS, Silverman JM (2007). "Cardiovascular risk factors for Alzheimer's disease". Am J Geriatr Cardiol 16 (3): 143–9.
  • Stern Y (July 2006). "Cognitive reserve and Alzheimer disease". Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders 20 (2): 112–117
  • Patients with Alzheimer's disease have reduced activities in midlife compared with healthy control-group members. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 March 13; 98(6): 3440–3445. Robert P. Friedland, et al.
  • R. Doll, R. Peto, J. Boreham, I. Sutherland: Mortality in relation to smoking. 50 years' observations on male British doctors. In: BMJ. 328.2004, 7455 (Jun 26), 1519
  • IB Puddey, LJ Beilin, V Rakic: Alcohol, hypertension and the cardiovascular system, a critical appraisal. In: Addict Biol. 2.1997,159–170
  • Chobanian AV u a: The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, the JNC 7 report. In: JAMA. 289.2003,19 (May 21),2560-2572
  • Leitlinien zur Behandlung der arteriellen Hypertonie. Deutsche Hochdruckliga e. V. DHL - Deutsche Hypertonie Gesellschaft. 2007.
  • RH Fagard: Exercise characteristics and the blood pressure response to dynamic physical training. In: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 33.2001, 6(Jun), S. 484-492; discussion S. 493-494
  • L. Sandvik u.a.: Physical fitness as a predictor of mortality among healthy, middle-aged Norwegian men. In: N Engl J Med. 25.1993, 328 (Feb 25),533-537
  • MR Law: Epidemiologic evidence on salt and blood pressure. In: Am J Hypertens. 10.1997,5 Pt 2 (May),42S-45S
  • Bao DQ, Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, Beilin LJ: Effects of dietary fish and weight reduction on ambulatory blood pressure in overweight hypertensives. Hypertension. 1998 Oct;32(4):710-7
  • Sacks FM et al; DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group: Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jan 4;344(1):3-10
  • Chronic nicotine administration exacerbates tau pathology in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease
  • Salvatore Oddo. PNAS February 22, 2005 vol. 102 no. 8 3046-3051
  • Physical Activity, Diet, and Risk of Alzheimer Disease: Nikolaos Scarmeas et al. JAMA. 2009;302(6):627-637
  • Loneliness and risk of Alzheimer disease.Wilson RS, Krueger KR, Arnold SE, Schneider JA, Kelly JF, Barnes LL, Tang Y, Bennett DA.Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Feb;64(2):234-40.
  • Social Engagement and Cognitive Function in Old Age. Kristin R. Krueger. Experimental Aging Research, Volume 35, Issue 1 January 2009 , pages 45 - 60

Iron Sensor (Hemochromatosis)

  • Allen, K.J., et al., Iron-overload-related disease in HFE hereditary hemochromatosis. N Engl J Med, 2008. 358(3): p. 221-30.
  • Bradley, L.A., J.E. Haddow, and G.E. Palomaki, Population screening for haemochromatosis: expectations based on a study of relatives of symptomatic probands. J Med Screen, 1996. 3(4): p. 171-7.
  • Adams PC, R.D., Barton JC, McLaren CE, Eckfeldt JH, McLaren GD, Dawkins FW, Acton RT, Harris EL, Gordeuk VR, Leiendecker-Foster C, Speechley M, Snively BM, Holup JL, Thomson E, Sholinsky P., Hemochromatosis and iron-overload screening in a racially diverse population. N Engl J Med, 2005(352): p. 1769–78.
  • CDCP, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • GeneticHealth.com.
  • MFMER, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.
  • NDDIC, National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse.
  • NIH, Institutes of Health.
  • GFHEV-Leitlinien.
  • Medicoconsult-Datenbank.
  • Haemochromatose.org.
  • Burt, M.J., et al., The significance of haemochromatosis gene mutations in the general population: implications for screening. Gut, 1998. 43(6): p. 830-6.
  • Leberkrankheiten_Informationswebseite.
  • Niederau C, F.R., Pürschel A, Stremmel W, Häussinger D, Strohmeyer G, Long-term survivalin patients with hereditary hemochromatosis. Gastroenterology 1996(110): p. 1107-1119.
  • Rochette, J., et al., Multicentric origin of hemochromatosis gene (HFE) mutations. Am J Hum Genet, 1999. 64(4): p. 1056-62.
  • "Hemochromatosis: Treatments and drugs". Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). http://www.mayocli nic.com/health/hemochromatosis/DS00455/DSECTION=7
  • Hemochromatosis National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
  • "Hemochromatosis: Symptoms". Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). http://www.mayoclinic.com/heal th/hemochromatosis/DS00455/DSECTION=2.
  • Prevalence of the HFE Gene Mutation in the Liver Transplanted and Primary Hemochromatosis Patients in the Southern Iran, M Yavarian et al. IRCMJ 2010; 12(1):22-26 ©Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
  • HFE mutations in heart disease, Terence Dunn et al. Heart and Vessels, Volume 23, Number 5, 348-355.

Bone Health Sensor (Osteoporosis)

  • Herold, Innere Medizin 2008
  • MSD Manual, 2.Auflage
  • Seeman, E.; Hopper, J. L.; Bach, L. A.; Cooper, M. E.; Parkinson, E.; McKay, J.; Jerums, G. : Reduced bone mass in daughters of women with osteoporosis. New Eng. J. Med. 320: 554-558, 1989
  • Bianchine, J. W.; Briard-Guillemot, M. L.; Maroteaux, P.; Frezal, J.; Harrison, H. E. : Generalized osteoporosis with bilateral pseudoglioma--an autosomal recessive disorder of connective tissue: report of three families--review of the literature. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 24: 34A only, 1972.
  • Raisz L (2005). "Pathogenesis of osteoporosis: concepts, conflicts, and prospects.". J Clin Invest 115 (12): 3318–25
  • DVO-Leitlinie "Osteoporose bei Frauen ab der Menopause und Männer über 60 Jahren", 2006
  • Guideline der National Osteoporosis Foundation (USA), 2003
  • Kim DH, Vaccaro AR (2006). "Osteoporotic compression fractures of the spine; current options and considerations for treatment". The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society 6 (5): 479–87
  • Ganz DA, Bao Y, Shekelle PG, Rubenstein LZ (2007). "Will my patient fall?". JAMA 297 (1): 77–86
  • Report of a Joint WHO/FAO/UNU Expert Consultation(2007) Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition, pp224-226
  • Report of a Joint WHO/FAO/UNU Expert Consultation(2002), Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements, pp166-167
  • Bolland MJ, Barber PA, Doughty RN, et al (2008). "Vascular events in healthy older women receiving calcium supplementation: randomised controlled trial". BMJ 336: 262
  • Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, et al (2006). "Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (7): 669–83
  • Ferrari, S. L.; Deutsch, S.; Choudhury, U.; Chevalley, T.; Bonjour, J.-P.; Dermitzakis, E. T.; Rizzoli, R.; Antonarakis, S. E. : Polymorphisms in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene are associated with variation in vertebral bone mass, vertebral bone size, and stature in whites. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74: 866-875, 2004
  • MacDonald H.M. et al., 2001; PMID 11547832
  • Mann V. et al., 2003; PMID 12810179
  • Qureshi A.M. et al., 2002; PMID 11907712
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  • Palomba S. et al., 2003; PMID 12525466
  • Thakkinstian A. et al., 2004; PMID 15040830 Joint Sensor (Rheumatoide Arthritis)
  • Zou J, Zhang Y, Thiel A, Rudwaleit M, Shi SL, Radbruch A, Poole R, Braun J, Sieper J.: Predominant cellular immune response to the cartilage autoantigenic G1 aggrecan in ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis. in: Rheumatology (Oxford). 2003 Jul;42(7):846-55
  • Abul K. Abbas : Diseases of Immunity in Vinay Kumar, Abul K. Abbas, Nelson Fausto : Robbins and Cotran - Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7. Auflage, Philadelphia, 2005, S. 205
  • Gerd Herold. Innere Medizin. Köln 2005
  • A. McMichael, P. Bowness. HLA-B27: natural function and pathogenic role in spondyloarthritis. Arthritis Res. 2002;4 Suppl 3:S153-8.
  • J.C. Edwards et al. Jekyll and Hyde: the transformation of HLAB27. Immunol Today. 2000 Jun;21(6):256-60
  • Braun J, Bollow M, Remlinger G et al.: Prevalence of Spondylarthropathies in HLA-B27 positive and negative blood donors. Arthritis & Rheumatism 1998;41:58–67
  • Porter, Robert; Beers, Mark H.; Berkow, Robert (2006). The Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy. Rahway, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories. pp. 290
  • DVMB - Deutsche Vereinigung Morbus Bechterew
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  • Günstige Ernährung bei Morbus Bechterew, Olaf Adam, WMW Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift Volume 158, Numbers 9-10, 294-297
  • P. Schmied und H. Baumberger. Morbus Bechterew – Der entzündliche Wirbelsäulen-Rheumatismus, 3. Auflage Gustav Fischer Verlag Stuttgart 2003
  • E Jaakkola, Finnish HLA studies confirm the increased risk conferred by HLA-B27 homozygosity in ankylosing spondylitis.Ann Rheum Dis 2006;65:775-780
  • Biesalski, H. K., et al., Ernährungsmedizin (2004), Thieme Verlag
  • DGE-Beratungsstandards: Rheumatische Erkrankungen (2001)
  • Diättherapie bei rheumatischen Erkrankungen«, Empfehlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Rheumatologie
  • Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2006 Mar;14(3):286-94. Epub 2005 Nov 23. Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in osteoarthritis pain of the knee: a pilot clinical trial. Kim LS, Axelrod LJ, Howard P, Buratovich N, Waters RF.
  • Wojtecka-Lukasik E, Inflamm Res. 2010 Mar;59 Suppl 2:S253-5. Cryotherapy decreases histamine levels in the blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Gluten Sensor (Gluten intolerance)

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  • Curione M, Barbato M, Viola F, Francia P, De Biase L, Cucchiara S. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy associated with coeliac disease: the effect of a gluten-free diet on cardiac performance. Dig Liver Dis. 2002;34:866 –869.
  • Handbuch Zöliakie, Österreichische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Zöliakie
  • Farrell R, Kelly C. Celiac sprue. N Engl J Med 2002;346:180–8.
  • Deutsche Zöliakie Gemeinschaft
  • Kupper C (2005). "Dietary guidelines and implementation for celiac disease". Gastroenterology 128 (4 Suppl 1): S121–7.
  • Sblattero D, Berti I, Trevisiol C, et al (May 2000). "Human recombinant tissue transglutaminase ELISA: an innovative diagnostic assay for celiac disease". Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95 (5): 1253–7.
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  • Effective detection of human leukocyte antigen risk alleles in celiac disease using tag single nucleotide polymorphisms. Monsuur AJ, de Bakker PI, Zhernakova A, Pinto D, Verduijn W, Romanos J, Auricchio R, Lopez A, van Heel DA, Crusius JB, Wijmenga C. PLoS One. 2008 May 28.3(5):e2270.

Lactose Sensor (Lactose Intolerance)

  • Herold, Innere Medizin 2008, 439-440
  • Beja-Pereira, A.; Luikart, G.; England, P. R.; Bradley, D. G.; Jann, O. C.; Bertorelle, G.; Chamberlain, A. T.; Nunes, T. P.; Metodiev, S.; Ferrand, N.; Erhardt, G. :
  • Gene-culture coevolution between cattle milk protein genes and human lactase genes. Nature Genet. 35: 311-313, 2003. Note: Erratum: Nature Genet. 35: 106 only, 2003.
  • Laktose-Intoleranz, Thilo Schleip, 5.Auflage, 2003
  • Tuula H. Vesa et al.: Lactose Intolerance, in: Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 19, No. 90002, 165S-175S (2000)
  • Bulhoes, A. C., et. al. (2007-11). "Correlation between lactose absorption and the C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 mutations of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LCT) gene in adult-type hypolactasia". Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research.
  • National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (March 2006). "Lactose Intolerance". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health.
  • Montalto M, Curigliano V, Santoro L, et al (2006). "Management and treatment of lactose malabsorption". World J. Gastroenterol. 12 (2): 187–91. PMID 16482616. http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/12/187.asp.
  • Enattah, N. S.; Sahi, T.; Savilahti, E.; Terwilliger, J. D.; Peltonen, L.; Jarvela, I. : Identification of a variant associated with adult-type hypolactasia. Nature Genet. 30: 233-237, 2002.
  • Olds, L. C.; Sibley, E. : Lactase persistence DNA variant enhances lactase promoter activity in vitro: functional role as a cis regulatory element. Hum. Molec. Genet. 12: 2333-2340, 2003.
  • Kuokkanen, M.; Kokkonen, J.; Enattah, N. S.; Ylisaukko-oja, T.; Komu, H.; Varilo, T.; Peltonen, L.; Savilahti, E.; Jarvela, I. : Mutations in the translated region of the lactase gene (LCT) underlie congenital lactase deficiency. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 78: 339-344, 2006.

IBD Sensor (Crohn's disease)

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  • Baumgart DC, Sandborn WJ (2007). "Inflammatory bowel disease: clinical aspects and established and evolving therapies.". The Lancet 369 (9573): 1641–57
  • J.-M.Hahn, Innere Medizin, 5.Auflage, 378-383
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  • Ogura, Y.; Bonen, D. K.; Inohara, N.; Nicolae, D. L.; Chen, F. F.; Ramos, R.; Britton, H.; Moran, T.; Karaliuskas, R.; Duerr, R. H.; Achkar, J.-P.; Brant, S. R.; Bayless, T. M.; Kirschner, B. S.; Hanauer, S. B.; Nunez, G.; Cho, J. H. :
  • A frameshift mutation in Nod2 associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Nature 411: 603-606, 2001
  • Jacobsen BA et al. Increase in incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in northern Denmark: a populationbased study, 1978-2002. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Jun;18(6):601-6.
  • Podolsky, Daniel K. (2002). "Inflammatory bowel disease". New England Journal of Medicine 346 (6): 417–29
  • Mueller, M. H.; M. E. Kreis, M. L. Gross, H. D. Becker, T. T. Zittel & E. C. Jehle (2002). "Anorectal functional disorders in the absence of anorectal inflammation in patients with Crohn's disease". British Journal of Surgery 89 (8): 1027–31
  • Reese GE, Nanidis T, Borysiewicz C, Yamamoto T, Orchard T, Tekkis PP; Int J Colorectal Dis. The effect of smoking after surgery for Crohn's disease: a meta-analysis of observational studies. 2008 Dec;23(12):1213-21. Epub 2008 Sep 2
  • King, K.; Sheikh, M. F.; Cuthbert, A. P.; Fisher, S. A.; Onnie, C. M.; Mirza, M. M.; Pattni, R. C.; Sanderson, J.; Forbes, A.; Mansfield, J.; Lewis, C. M.; Roberts, R. G.; Mathew, C. G. : Mutation, selection, and evolution of the Crohn disease susceptibility gene CARD15. Hum. Mutat. 27: 44-54, 2006.

Glaucoma Sensor (Glaucoma)

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  • Identification of a gene that causes primary open angle glaucoma. Science 275: 668-670, 1997.
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  • Morissette, J.; Cote, G.; Anctil, J.-L.; Plante, M.; Amyot, M.; Heon, E.; Trope, G. E.; Weissenbach, J.; Raymond, V. : A common gene for juvenile and adult-onset primary open-angle glaucomas confined on chromosome 1q. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 56: 1431-1442, 1995.
  • Kwon, Y. H.; Fingert, J. H.; Kuehn, M. H.; Alward, W. L. M. : Primary open-angle glaucoma. New Eng. J. Med. 360: 1113-1124, 2009.
  • Rezaie, T.; Child, A.; Hitchings, R.; Brice, G.; Miller, L.; Coca-Prados, M.; Heon, E.; Krupin, T.; Ritch, R.; Kreutzer, D.; Crick, R. P.; Sarfarazi, M. : Adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma caused by mutations in optineurin. Science 295: 1077-1079, 2002.

AMD Sensor (Macular Degeneration)

  • Augenheilkunde, Franz Grehn, 30.Auflage, 2008
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  • Haines, J. L.; Hauser, M. A.; Schmidt, S.; Scott, W. K.; Olson, L. M.; Gallins, P.; Spencer, K. L.; Kwan, S. Y.; Noureddine, M.; Gilbert, J. R.; Schnetz-Boutaud, N.; Agarwal, A.; Postel, E. A.; Pericak-Vance, M. A. : Complement factor H variant increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Science 308: 419-421, 2005
  • Diagnosen am Augenhintergrund, Thieme, Bernd Kirchhof, Martin Reim, Sebastian Wolf, 2003
  • de Jong PT (2006). "Age-related macular degeneration". N Engl J Med. 355 (14): 1474–1485.
  • Ch. 25, Disorders of the Eye, Jonathan C. Horton, in Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th ed.
  • Richer SP.J Am Optom Assoc. 1993 Dec;64(12):838-50. Is there a prevention and treatment strategy for macular degeneration?
  • Yang Z, Camp NJ, Sun H, Tong Z, Gibbs D, Cameron DJ, Chen H, Zhao Y, Pearson E, Li X, Chien J, Dewan A, Harmon J, Bernstein PS, Shridhar V, Zabriskie NA, Hoh J, Howes K, Zhang K. "A variant of the HTRA1 gene increases susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration."
  • Deutsche Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft (DOG)
  • Klein, R. J.; Zeiss, C.; Chew, E. Y.; Tsai, J.-Y.; Sackler, R. S.; Haynes, C.; Henning, A. K.; SanGiovanni, J. P.; Mane, S. M.; Mayne, S. T.; Bracken, M. B.; Ferris, F. L.; Ott, J.; Barnstable, C.; Hoh, J. : Complement factor H polymorphism in age-related macular degeneration. Science 308: 385-389, 2005
  • National Institutes of Health (NIH) - National Eye Institute
  • Maller, J.; George, S.; Purcell, S.; Fagerness, J.; Altshuler, D.; Daly, M. J.; Seddon, J. M. : Common variation in three genes, including a noncoding variant in CFH, strongly influences risk of age-related macular degeneration. Nature Genet. 38: 1055-1059, 2006
  • Wegscheider BJ, Weger M, Renner W, et al. Association of complement factor H Y402H gene polymorphism with different subtypes of exudative age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. 2007.114:738-42.
  • Montezuma SR, Sobrin L, Seddon JM. Review of genetics in age related macular degeneration. Semin Ophthalmol. 2007;22:229-40.
  • A variant of the HTRA1 gene increases susceptibility to agerelated macular degeneration. Science. 2006 Nov 10.314(5801):992-3. Epub 2006 Oct 19. Yang Z, Camp NJ, Sun H, Tong Z, Gibbs D, Cameron DJ, Chen H, Zhao Y, Pearson E, Li X, Chien J, Dewan A, Harmon J, Bernstein PS, Shridhar V, Zabriskie NA, Hoh J, Howes K, Zhang K.

Periodontitis Sensor (Periodontitis)

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  • J Clin Periodontol. 1998 Oct:25(10):781-5. Interleukin-1beta+3953 allele 2: association with disease status in adult periodontitis. Gore EA, Sanders JJ, Pandey JP, Palesch Y, Galbraith GM.
  • Cytokine. 2012 Jul 12. Analysis of IL1 gene polymorphisms and transcript levels in periodontal and chronic kidney disease. Braosi AP, de Souza CM, Luczyszyn SM, Dirschnabel AJ, Claudino M, Olandoski M, Probst CM, Garlet GP, Pecoits-Filho R, Trevilatto PC.
  • J Periodontol. 2012 Feb 21. Interleukin-1 Gene Polymorphisms and Chronic Periodontitis in Adult Caucasians: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Karimbux NY, Saraiya VM, Elangovan S, Allareddy V, Kinnunen T, Kornman KS, Duff GW.
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  • J Am Dent Assoc. 2002 Apr:133(4):452-9; quiz 492-3. Clinical utility of a genetic susceptibility test for severe chronic periodontitis: a critical evaluation. Greenstein G, Hart TC.
  • J Clin Periodontol. 1998 Oct:25(10):781-5. Interleukin-1beta+3953 allele 2: association with disease status in adult periodontitis. Gore EA, Sanders JJ, Pandey JP, Palesch Y, Galbraith GM.
  • J Periodontol. 2006 Dec:77(12):1978-83. Analysis of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin-10, IL-6, and interferon-gamma gene polymorphisms in patients with chronic periodontitis. Babel N, Cherepnev G, Babel D, Tropmann A, Hammer M, Volk HD, Reinke P
  • Clin Exp Immunol. 2007 Apr:148(1):119-26. Interleukin-6 expression and gene polymorphism are associated with severity of periodontal disease in a sample of Brazilian individuals. Moreira PR, Lima PM, Sathler KO, Imanishi SA, Costa JE, Gomes RS, Gollob KJ, Dutra WO. Nutrition Sensor
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  • Adams PC, R.D., Barton JC, McLaren CE, Eckfeldt JH, McLaren GD, Dawkins FW, Acton RT, Harris EL, Gordeuk VR, Leiendecker-Foster C, Speechley M, Snively BM, Holup JL, Thomson E, Sholinsky P., Hemochromatosis and iron-overload screening in a racially diverse population. N Engl J Med, 2005(352): p. 1769–78.
  • Allen, K.J., et al., Iron-overload-related disease in HFE hereditary hemochromatosis. N Engl J Med, 2008. 358(3): p. 221-30.
  • Alpha-tocopherol supplementation prevents the exerciseinduced reduction of serum paraoxonase 1/arylesterase activities in healthy individuals.
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  • Association between decreased vitamin levels and MTHFR, MTR and MTRR gene polymorphisms as determinants for elevated total homocysteine concentrations in pregnant women.
  • Association of MTRRA66G polymorphism (but not of MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTRA2756G, TCN C776G) with homocysteine and coronary artery disease in the French population.
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  • Diagnosen am Augenhintergrund, Thieme, Bernd Kirchhof, Martin Reim, Sebastian Wolf, 2003
  • DVO-Leitlinie "Osteoporose bei Frauen ab der Menopause und Männer über 60 Jahren", 2006
  • Effect of B vitamin supplementation on plasma homocysteine levels in celiac disease. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. Dawson-Hughes B: N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 4;337(10):670-6.
  • Effect of supplementation of calcium and vitamin D on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in peri- and postmenopause women; a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.Di Daniele N,Pharmacol Res. 2004 Dec;50(6):637-41.
  • Effective detection of human leukocyte antigen risk alleles in celiac disease using tag single nucleotide polymorphisms. Monsuur AJ, de Bakker PI, Zhernakova A, Pinto D, Verduijn W, Romanos J, Auricchio R, Lopez A, van Heel DA, Crusius JB, Wijmenga C. PLoS One. 2008 May 28.3(5):e2270.
  • Ellard, S. : Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF-1-alpha) mutations in maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Hum. Mutat. 16: 377-385, 2000
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